From field work in the late 1960's and early 1970's, Hall and Hord identified, verified, and operationally defined eight different levels of use of a new innovation. These levels of use are an important feature of their Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM). When learning to use a new innovation, users move along a spectrum that ranges from no use to full use.
More recently, Christopher Moertsch developed the Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) Framework, which roughly parallels Hall and Hord's "levels of use" framework and applies it to the use of technology in schools.
The following table, which relates these two research-based frameworks, was developed at RMC Research Corporation. By assessing where your staff members are in each of these levels of use of educational technologies, you can relate your technology plan's outcomes for teaching and learning with technology, and the current outcomes of your staff development program, to the types of teacher perceptions and practices that have been observed by other researchers as a result of various technology initiatives.
|Level||CBAM Level||CBAM Description||LoTi Category||LoTi Description|
|CBAM and LoTi: 0||Nonuse||State in which the user has little or no knowledge of the innovation, no involvement with the innovation, and is doing nothing toward becoming involved.||Nonuse||A perceived lack of access to technology-based tools or a lack of time to pursue electronic technology implementation. Existing technology is predominantely text-based (e.g., ditto sheets, chalkboard, overhead projector).|
|CBAM and LoTi: 1||Orientation||State in which the user has recently acquired or is acquiring information about the innovation and/or has recently explored or is exploring its value orientation and its demands upon user and user system.||Awareness||The use of computers is generally one step removed from the classroom teacher (e.g., it occurs in integrated learning system labs, special computer-based pull-out programs, computer literacy classes, and central word processing labs). Computer-based applications have little or no relevance to the individual teacher's instructional program.|
|CBAM: 2; LoTi: 2||Preparation||State in which the user is preparing for the first use of the innovation.||Exploration||Technology-based tools serve as a supplement (e.g., tutorials, educational games, simulations) to the existing instructional program. The electronic technology is employed either for extension activities or for enrichment exercises to the instructional program.|
|CBAM: no equivalent; LoTi: 3||.||.||Infusion||Technology-based tools including databases, spreadsheets, graphing packages, probes, calculators, multimedia applications, desktop publishing, and telecommunications augment selected instructional events (e.g., science kit experiments using spreadsheets or graphs to analyze results, telecommunications activities involving data sharing among schools).|
|CBAM: 3; LoTi: 4a||Mechanical Use||State in which the user focuses most effort on the short-term, day-today use of the innovation with little time for reflection. Changes in use are made more to meet user needs than client needs. The user is primarily engaged in a stepwise attempt to master the tasks required to use the innovation, often resulting in disjointed and superficial use.||Integration (mechanical)||Technology-based tools are mechanically integrated, providing a rich context for students' understanding of the pertinent concepts, themes, and processes. Heavy reliance is placed on pre-packaged materials and sequential charts that aid the tacher in the daily operation of the instructional curriculum. Technology (e.g., multimedia, telecommunications, databases, spreadsheets, word processing) is perceived as a tool to identify and solve authentic problems relating to an overall theme or concept.|
|CBAM: 4a; LoTi 4b||Routine Use||Use of the innovation is stabilized. Few if any changes are being made in ongoing use. Little preparation or thought is being given to improving innovation use or its consequences.||Integration (routine)||Teachers can readily create integrated units with little intervention from outside resources. Technology-based tools are easily and routinely integrated, providing a rich context for students' understanding of the pertinent concepts, themes, and processes. Technology (e.g., multimedia, telecommuications, databases, spreadsheets, word processing) is perceived as a tool to identify and solve authentic problems relating to an overall theme/concept.|
|CBAM: 4b; LoTi 5||Refinement||State in which the user varies the use of the innovation to increase the impact on clients within immediate sphere of influence. Variations are based on knowledge of both short- and long-term consequences for clients.||Expansion||Technology is extended beyond the classroom. Classroom teachers actively elicit technology applications and networking from business enterprises, governmental agencies (e.g., contacting NASA to establish a link to an orbiting space shuttle through the Internet), research institutions, and universities to expand student experiences directed at problem solving, issues resolution, and student activism surrounding a major theme or concept.|
|CBAM: 5; LoTi 6||Integration||State in which the user is combining own efforts to use the innovation with related activities of colleagues to achieve a collective impact on clients within their common sphere of influence.||Refinement||Technology is perceived as a process, product (e.g., invention, patent, new software design), and tool for students to use in solving authentic problems related to an identified real-world problem or issue. In this context, technology provides a seamless medium for information queries, problem solving, and product development. Students have ready access to and a complete understanding of a vast array of technology-based tools to accomplish any particular task.|
|CBAM: 6; LoTi: no equivalent||Renewal||State in which the user re-evaluates the quality of use of the innovation, seeks major modifications of or alternatives to present innovation to achieve increased impact on clients, examines new developments in the field, and explores new goals for self and the system.||.||.|
Levels of Use of Technology